Moritz Wüstenberg, Kim Talus, WTO law perspectives on EU–Russia energy trade: worlds apart or minor differences?, The Journal of World Energy Law & Business, Volume 11, Issue 4, 1 August 2018, Pages 360–371
The focus of this article is on the regulation of trade in energy and energy-intensive goods between the European Union (EU) and Russia through World Trade Organization (WTO) rules. While other energy exporting countries have acceded to the WTO in the past decades, Russia’s accession has caused more controversy and disputes than any other, for one due to the fact that Russia is a major exporter of both oil and natural gas, for the other due to the circumstance that Russia not only exports energy, but is also a major exporter of energy-intensive goods, such as metals and fertilizers. A number of Russia’s energy-intensive goods have faced anti-dumping duties in importing countries, and prior to becoming a WTO Member, Russia had limited options to defend against these measures. Since its accession to the WTO, Russia has initiated a number of disputes in relation to both measures aimed at energy trade, as well as trade in energy-intensive goods. The objective of this article is to determine to what extent Russia’s claims of unfair practices by other WTO Members are founded.